Strong Waters: A Simple Guide to Making Beer, Wine, Cider and Other Spirited Beverages at Home [Scott Mansfield] on lymukojemo.tk *FREE* shipping on. Editorial Reviews. Review. “A lovely addition to the expanding field of traditional, non-hopped Strong Waters: A Simple Guide to Making Beer, Wine, Cider and Other Spirited Beverages at Home - Kindle edition by Today's renewed interest in making wine and beer at home amounts to nothing less than a renaissance.
Buying honey from a farmer's market also makes it more likely that you can talk with the beekeeper. Tell him or her what you're planning to make, and the beekeeper can help you select the right honey. Pasteurizing makes honey clearer and less likely to crystallize, but it also cooks much of the aroma out of it.
After all, thousands of bees visited hundreds of thousands of flowers to give a batch of honey its particular flavor. It seems a shame to boil it away. Better to preserve it in an alcohol base and share it with your friends and family. By the way, crystallized honey is fine for beverages.
To reliquefy it, just heat it gently. Malt Malt is the primary sugar source for beer, though it can be used in other beverages as well. It is made from barley that was allowed to sprout. Although unsprouted grain contains some sugar, the enzymes in the moist, sprouting grain convert much of the grain's starch to sugar, making it easier for the young plant to consume. Makers, the people who make malt, monitor a batch of sprouting barley; once the growth progresses to the optimum point, the makers toast the grain, which suspends the sprouting process and adds a pleasant caramel flavor.
Here are some resources to help you get started! Alex Lewin. Pascal Baudar. Secrets from the Master Brewers. Sizzling Brews. This was a great advance for operations previously accomplished in skins or clay jars amphora.
Malt comes in a variety of forms: crystal malt, which is the actual toasted malted grain; a syrup of malt; or dried and powdered malt. The best form for beginners to use is malt syrup, available in cans from homebrewing stores. Many varieties include hop flavoring, meaning all you need to do to make beer is simmer the syrup in the right amount of water, pour it into a primary fermenter, let it cool, and add yeast. The process is about as tough as making iced tea, and the results are more refreshing.
You can spend many happy decades making beer from malt syrup, save thousands of dollars, drink the best beer you've ever had, and become a legend among your friends and family, all without using whole grains to make beer. Raisins In , the U. Surprisingly, some California vineyards responded by increasing grape production. However, rather than make wine themselves, the vineyards shipped fresh and concentrated juice to consumers and also bricks of raisins, with the warning label that adding water and yeast could result in fermentation, and possibly wine.
Thanks for the warning. About 66 percent of the weight of raisins is fermentable sugar. This means if a recipe specifies table sugar, you can multiply the amount by 1. There is also an entire class of wines in which raisins are the primary source of sugar, and raisins can add character to many beverages that otherwise lack it. Be aware, though, that using any dried fruit will slow fermentation, since it will take the yeast much longer to extract the sugar from dehydrated fruit clumps than fresh juice.
You can speed up the extraction process by chopping the raisins. Brown Sugar Brown sugar may look more natural than white sugar, but it's often nothing more than refined white sugar with molasses added. This sweetener is occasionally called for when making beers that don't include malt. It provides more flavor and more nutrients for the yeast than white sugar, but it also adds unfermentable residue to the bottom of the fermenter.
Molasses Molasses is the residue of sugarcane or sugar beets after the crystallized portion has been drawn off. Molasses is filtered and may have sulfur added to sanitize it. Keep in mind that you may not be able to ferment any ingredient that contains sulfur.
Light molasses is roughly 90 percent sugar. Blackstrap and treacle are about 50 percent sugar and therefore leave a substantial amount of flavor and crud behind. Molasses was a key ingredient in many old recipes, but I've found any beverage made with it is too strongly flavored. Very small amounts, however, can add interesting accents to ginger or spruce beers.
Lactose Lactose is an unfermentable sugar that is often used to increase the sweetness of beers such as milk stouts. It can also be used to increase the sweetness of sparkling wines. Artificial Sweeteners There are number of sugar substitutes you can use to sweeten beverages without concern that the yeast will ferment them, such as aspartame, saccharin, and stevia. Diet plum melomel? Why not? Fruit- flavored Syrups Want a touch of blackberry in your Gamay? Or maybe you are looking for an easy way to enhance a mint- flavored metheglin?
Since fruit- flavored syrups are pasteurized, you don't need to heat them. Sugar amounts vary from one type to another; figure between 60 to 70 percent fermentable sugar in a syrup. None of the recipes in this book include fruit syrups, so if you use them be sure to record the brand of syrup, how much you used, and the result.
YEAST Those of us who believe in evolution understand that much of our brain is similar to that of other animals, but all life forms evolved from a shared ancestor and we have many millions of years of shared past with microorganisms like yeast. Can that have left no imprint on us? Don't think of yeast as some strange little creature you buy in a foil packet. We have a lot in common with it, including an abiding attachment to alcohol. We occasionally hear about this law in beer commercials that tout adherence to this historic and noble- sounding standard.
However, the law was written centuries before Pasteur proved that yeast were responsible for fermentation, and the only ingredients that constituted German beer at that time were barley, hops, and water.
Brewers sometimes used brooms to stir their worts malt water mixtures and hung the brooms out to dry afterward. Unbeknownst to them, dried yeast remained on the brooms, which were used to stir and start the fermentation for subsequent batches. Fortunately, we understand the importance of yeast in making fermented beverages and can use packaged versions to make our beverages rather than whatever is stuck to the Swiffer.
But what is yeast? Yeast is a tiny fungus that eats sugar and excretes carbon dioxide, water, alcohol, and sometimes a little sulfur. Alcoholic beverages of any kind — wine, beer, whiskey, vodka, you name it — would be nonexistent without yeast. Luckily for us, yeast knows how to beat out its competitors in the rough- and-tumble world of nature. Although the breeze carries yeast and deposits it on fruit so it can feed and grow, the wind also carries yeast's competitors — bacteria, mold, and other microbes — and drops them on the same fruit. While a piece of fruit is alive and growing, these tiny organisms cling to the skin and wait.
When the skin of the fruit breaks, perhaps from falling to the ground, these organisms eat the sugary interior and battle with each other for domination of their environment. Yeast has a couple of interesting advantages here. First, when it eats sugars, it expels carbon dioxide and a little sulfur, both of which can be more than annoying to its competitors. But yeast's best weapon is the liquid it transpires: alcohol.
And because alcohol effectively kills many germs, bacteria, and molds, you can see yeast packs quite a punch. By excreting carbon dioxide, sulfides, and alcohol while it feeds and reproduces, the yeast beast uses chemical warfare to subdue the competition.
Aside from our similar use of alcohol to kill germs and bacteria, we humans enjoy several of alcohol's other benefits: When used in moderation, alcohol makes us feel good, aids in digestion, and cleans fat deposits from our blood vessels. Because it evaporates readily, alcohol is also an effective way to carry aromatics to our noses and taste buds. Alcohol dissolves, preserves, and releases the subtlest and most complex aromas the natural world produces.
Some people prefer to use the natural yeasts found on fruits to make fermented beverages. Although this is risky, since the yeast may not ferment all the available sugar or could add a bad taste, it can also be rewarding. After trying a few batches and achieving some successes with store-bought yeasts, you might experiment with the natural method.
The beverages that result will be local to where you made them and won't taste quite the same as a similar beverage made anywhere else. The most famous and successful example of a naturally fermented beverage is the Iambic wheat beer brewed in Belgium. For centuries, this beer has been fermented using the wild yeasts and bacteria that are native to the area. The beer is then aged, sometimes for several years. The resulting beverage is dry and has a refreshing cidery and sour flavor.
There is currently a winemaking group in Northern California called the Natural Process Alliance that uses only natural yeast. In addition to avoiding commercial yeast, group members also do not use enzymes, chemical or natural additives, animal by-products, fining agents, or filtration. Still, over the generations, people discovered that "cultivating" yeasts helps create consistent and tasty beverages.
As with any other agricultural crop, we've sampled the yeast strains that occurred naturally; selected, preserved, and strengthened the ones that best served us; and found ways to suppress the others. Like most life-forms, yeast affects and is affected by the environment it lives in. Some yeasts work better in cold weather; some tolerate moldy environments; some ferment slowly, others rapidly. Some rise to the top of a liquid as they reproduce, and others quickly sink to the bottom as fermentation slows.
Some yeasts contribute a spice taste, some yield a buttery flavor, and some add a fruity or flowery bouquet. Yeast is available in dried and liquid forms from homebrewing and winemaking supply stores. Both work well, though the liquid version costs more and generally starts working more quickly. I almost always use dried yeast. When you add yeast to a fermentable liquid, it normally takes 12 to 36 hours for fermentation to begin. Before fermentation starts, you can allow the liquid to continue to have access to the air since yeast needs oxygen to replicate.
In other words, rather than putting an airlock on the primary fermentation container before fermentation starts, snap the lid on the primary fermenter but leave the airlock off. If 3 days after adding the initial yeast, you haven't seen any foam on the surface, refer to the Troubleshooting section page Ale yeast works in warmer environments. Most of the low-alcohol recipes in this book recommend ale yeast because it doesn't need to be refrigerated.
If you're making a low-alcohol beverage, such as beer or cider, get extra packets of ale yeast.
If you're making anything else, get a few extra packets of Champagne yeast, since this strain will ferment liquids when others might not. In the days before synthetic medicines, herbs and spices brought not only flavor to food and drink, but vitamins, minerals, and antiviral and antibacterial properties as well. And since alcohol acts as a solvent, it can extract, retain, and preserve the essential oils in any herbs and spices in an alcoholic beverage. By the way, an herb normally comes from the leafy part of a plant, while a spice is from the seeds, fruit, roots, or bark of a plant.
In the Middle Ages, monks at the Catholic monasteries used Greek and Roman herbals, as well as their own experiments, to create mixtures called gruits, which the local brewers used for bittering agents in ales. The recipes changed based on what was ready for foraging from the forests and meadows and what seasonal tonics the local polis night need.
Some of the recipes in this book include ingredients, such as the green walnuts in nocino, that aren't typically used for cooking. These may be available in herb shops or specialty food stores. You can also gather wild ingredients yourself, which gives the resulting beverage a more local and interesting pedigree. When using fresh herbs, remember that they will retain more flavor if fermented at a lower temperature. Another way to keep more of an herb's aroma is to let it steep in hot water for 20 to 30 minutes to make a tea, which you then add toward the end of the brewing time or primary fermentation.
Fining Agents A fining agent is any substance added to a beverage to help clear it. Although the recipes in this book recommend the appropriate fining agent, as you develop your own preferences it's good to know the strengths and weaknesses of the different agents. Here are the most common types. If you've got a batch that is cloudy or has a musty or sulfury taste or too much tannin, you can use activated charcoal to strip such imperfections out.
Of course, it also removes color. In the s, commercial wineries used it to help make Zinfandels "white.
Bentonite doesn't affect taste, though it does remove some color. It can be added at the beginning of a primary fermentation, or after the first racking if an enzyme is initially used. Soon after it's added it sinks to the bottom, but as fermentation occurs, gas bubbles lift the silty bentonite particles to the surface of the beverage.
When the bubbles pop, the particles drift back to the bottom, carrying bits of fruit or other impurities to the bottom This fining agent can remove a lot of particles during its many cycles through a ferment, so it's a good choice when you use fruit to make a beverage instead of filtered juice. You can also add it at the end of fermentation, but since there are no bubbles to circulate it, bentonite added at this stage will only remove particles once as it sinks. Mix l A teaspoon of bentonite in Vi cup of hot water to treat 1 gallon.
It won't remove as much color as gelatin or activated charcoal. Like isinglass, it's used after fermentation has finished, to give your beverage a final polish. Because it doesn't affect color, it's especially useful with red wines. For each gallon of beverage, use Vi teaspoon of fresh egg white gently mixed with 1 cup of the beverage and then stirred into the rest of the batch. Don't worry about getting salmonella from raw egg whites.
The U. Department of Agriculture US DA estimates only about one egg in thirty thousand has salmonella, and the alcohol in the beverage would kill it if present. Although it adds no flavor itself, gelatin will remove some color and flavor. Toss in just a pinch per gallon, 5 or 10 minutes before turning off the heat. It bonds to proteins and other particles and drags them, kicking and screaming, to the bottom of the pot.
Since it removes yeast, add it after the fermentation has ended. Isinglass isn't good at clearing cloudy beverages; it's best used to give an already clear beverage a final polish. Dissolve l A teaspoon of the powder in X A cup of hot water and stir it into your fermented beverage. It takes about a week to settle out. It helps firm up the sediment at the bottom of the fermentation vessel too, which makes it easier to siphon without stirring up the lees. Stir in 1 tablespoon per gallon of fermented beverage. For each gallon of fermented beverage, simmer 1 teaspoon of Sparkolloid in a little boiling water for 15 minutes, then stir it into the beverage.
Nutrients Yeast benefits from having some nitrogen in its diet. Many fruit-based and most grain-based beverages contain plenty of nitrogen, but honey-or sugar-based beverages ferment better with additional nitrogen. If yeasts don't have enough nutrients, they cannot start the fermentation, or stop prematurely, or give off a rotten egg smell. You can buy yeast nutrient or booster at winemaking supply stores. Add 1 teaspoon of any of these nutrients to a gallon batch.
Light and dry beverages need less acid than heavy, sweet ones. Acid blends are a combination of tartaric, citric, and malic acids and are available from home winemaking suppliers. If you want to add a citrus flavor to a beverage, add citric acid.
Citric acid is a relatively common food additive and preservative, and some markets carry it in the same section as canning supplies. Those listed below are used when making beverages. Get them from winemaking suppliers. While helpful for making jellies, pectin can cause a haze in beverages. This haze can be greatly reduced by adding a pectin enzyme to the beverage before or during the primary fermentation.
Use Vi teaspoon per gallon. In the process, the enzymes in the fruit also add color and flavor to the beverage. You can enhance both color and flavor by adding 1 teaspoon of this enzyme per gallon before or during the primary fermentation stage. When convenient, wait at least 12 hours between using an enzyme and a sulfite. Some fruits, such as grapes, blackberries, and elderberries, contain this astringent substance.
But beverages made from other fruits can benefit from more tannin than is found in the fruit. Tannin can easily be added to fermentable beverages by using powdered grape tannin or toasted oak sawdust, both of which are available from home winemaking supply stores. Several recipes in this book include lemon or lime juice as an ingredient. Too much glycerin can make a beverage taste "metallic," though, so err on the side of too little if you use this. Don't feel bad about using glycerin; yeast produces it naturally. One tablet will treat 1 gallon.
Adding sulfites at this stage also helps prevent oxidation, spoilage, and color change. Since sorbates will not stop an active fermentation, use this only after you've added a sulfite to stabilize a beverage. Now let's look at each step in the process, including some simple techniques to improve the quality of your beverage. Reading books, talking with people, watching videos, and taking tours can help you learn how to make a delicious beverage. But living is not a spectator sport. Nothing will help you make better beverages than experience, and with smaller batches, you will get more practice.
If you make a small batch of wine and, after trying it, realize that it would be much better with a little more oak, you can make the adjustment in a subsequent batch relatively soon. I know groups of people who get together in the fall to mix various grape varieties and make a different wine blend each year. They each receive about a hundred bottles. It's great fun, but if they don't like the result, they're stuck until next year.
Made a gallon of birch beer that tastes like liquid toothpaste? Throw it away. Spent fifty bucks on raspberries to get 10 gallons of wine so tart you could use it to strip a floor? You won't toss it; you'll spend more money and time trying to fix it. And even if you succeed in salvaging the batch, it's doubtful you'll have a recipe you would want to follow in the future. It's great to learn from mistakes, but it's less painful to learn from small ones. While you might be able to pick enough violet blossoms to make Vi gallon of violet-infused wine, getting enough for several gallons is next to impossible.
Making smaller batches broadens the possibilities of using interesting ingredients. If you are going to become good at something, you need to enjoy the process, not just the results. There are two main methods for doing this: hot water and chemicals. Hot Water There are few sanitizing agents simpler than boiling water, and using it to prepare plastic and metal for fermenting is pretty easy. You can also sanitize bottles and utensils by putting them in a dishwasher; many models now include a sanitize setting. If the insides of bottles are otherwise clean, which the dishwasher can't accomplish, the heat from the dishwasher will sanitize them See the next page for how to clean bottles.
Chemicals Use 1 teaspoon of liquid bleach in 1 gallon of water to make an effective sanitizing solution. Be sure to mix the bleach with cold water, as chlorine is volatile and hot water will cause the gas to leave the solution. Also, you'll need to rinse the bleach solution off the sanitized object before use. Note that you should never let any liquid containing chlorine, even tap water, come into contact with corks, as chlorine will activate a smelly mold in the cork.
Boil any tap water for several minutes before using it to soak corks. There are also specialized concentrates for sanitizing equipment, such as One Step, that are mixed with water but don't require rinsing. You can purchase these from home winemaking or brewing supply providers. Lastly, you can use a solution of water and potassium metabisulfite Campden tablets not only to clean equipment, but also to sanitize the beverage ingredients.
Use one Campden tablet, purchased from home winemaking or brewing supply providers, per gallon of water. Here's what I do with wine bottles I want to reuse: 1. Submerge the bottles in hot soapy water and let them soak for a couple of days. Examine each for mold or other crust sticking to the inside. If some crud remains in the bottle, you can try using a bottle brush to remove it. Another method is to leave a little water in the bottle, drop in a length of thin chain, and shake vigorously.
If the bottle still isn't clean, recycle it. While the labels are still wet, scrape them off with a knife blade, as if you were peeling potatoes. If there's any residual glue on the glass, scrub it with a scouring pad. A few bottlers use non-water-based glues that won't come off unless you use a solvent. I recycle those bottles. Put the bottles in a dishwasher or one of the sanitizing solutions mentioned on page If you aren't going to use the sanitized bottles right away, you can store them upside down in a cardboard box to keep dirt from dropping into them. I don't bother cleaning bottles again right before using.
Most bottlers don't clean new bottles before using them. If anything, they just blow any dust out of them and fill them with the beverage. The primary reason for all this cleanliness is to give your yeast a place to grow where it won't have to compete with bacteria or strains of wild yeast.
If your beverage does get contaminated by bacteria, you'll know it.
When a beverage smells like spoiled food, it means the bacteria is beating out the yeast, and it's best to dump what you have, clean up your equipment, and be more careful next time. Fortunately, yeast is tough and tends to beat out most competitors because of its ability to live in a solution of alcohol.
Also, brewers and winemakers selected the best yeast varieties over the centuries, and the ones we have now are superstars. Still, a few types of bacteria can live in a fermenting beverage, and you need to take reasonable precautions to prevent them from growing. Even slight bacterial contamination of your beverage can ruin it. The same two methods for sanitizing equipment also apply to ingredients: heat and chemicals. Heat works well for those beverages that require you to boil the ingredients anyway. For example, when you make a grain-based beverage like beer, you don't need to worry about chemically sanitizing the malt; just get the water boiling and add the ingredients.
Chemicals work well for those beverages where heat would damage the flavor or appearance. For example, boiling fruit juices that contain pectin can cloud the final beverage. The chemical of choice for sanitizing beverages is potassium metabisulfite, also known as sulfite. You can buy this chemical as a powder or in a convenient tablet form as Campden tablets. A single tablet of potassium metabisulfite will sanitize 1 gallon of liquid. Although adding sulfur to a beverage sounds unappetizing, the amount you use is so small that it completely dissipates during fermentation or while aging.
To sanitize your bottles, fermenters, and the equipment you use to measure and mix ingredients, rinse them in a solution of water and sulfite. For example, if you want your beverage to retain some sweetness, you can add a sulfite and prevent the yeast from consuming the remaining sugar. Many dried fruits — apricots, for example — maintain their color and flavor better if they have been treated with sulfites. There is no research showing increased rates of disease from the consumption of sulfited foods. This, in addition to alcohol, helps to kill bacteria.
So in a sense, you are using a chemical similar to one that yeast produce anyway. Which approach should you choose? The answer is to experiment and develop your own preferences. Note: Bottled juices, canned fruit, and all heat-processed foods are pasteurized and can be fermented as is. In other words, you don't need to reheat them or sulfite them.
Of course, if you add other unpasteurized ingredients to the juice, you will need to sanitize the mixture. To activate it, all you need to do is open the packet and pour the granules into the waiting solution. Fermentation normally begins in 12 to 36 hours. Before your yeast gets started, however, the sugary solution is vulnerable to invasion by other kinds of yeast, as well as bacteria, either of which could spoil the beverage. To reduce this possibility, some people hydrate their yeast several hours ahead of time, giving it a head start, so that by the time they add the yeast it's already kicking.
To hydrate yeast, simply pour the packet into a small glass of water a couple of hours before you plan to add it to the fermentation solution. Alternatively, you could pour the yeast into a small glass of pasteurized fruit juice a day before you plan to use it; the yeast will be not only hydrated but active when it is poured into the solution.
I usually don't bother hydrating yeast; the strains available are reliable and start quickly. Generally, the lighter the beverage, the more a lower temperature will help preserve aromatics. Fermenting on the warmer end of the range extracts more color and deeper flavors from the ingredients. Temperatures outside of this range run the risk of stopping the fermentation. While small amounts of fusel alcohols are sometimes sought after, especially by liquor distillers, because they add a character to the brew, they are avoided in most other beverages, since they can taste "harsh.
Dehydration is the primary cause. And finally, as a fermentation reaches its conclusion, the remaining yeast is more sensitive to increased alcohol levels and can stop working at higher temperatures. In fact, all fermented beverages are compromised by exposure to ultraviolet light: Beer gets skunky, and the color of anything with fruit either washes out or browns. Therefore, keep all your beverages away from light, both when fermenting and storing them.
In other words, once you've done all the prep work for the yeast, get out of the way, let nature take over, and watch. After adding the yeast, check the liquid to make sure the fermentation starts. First the liquid will become cloudy as the yeast reproduces. Then, as the yeast starts consuming the sugars, the airlock will bubble, and you may notice the liquid begin to foam, sometimes dramatically. After the initial burst of activity, much of the sugar in the liquid is replaced by alcohol, and most of the yeast will drop to the bottom of the primary fermentation container.
If you are making a low-alcohol beverage like beer or cider, the liquid may clear and be ready to bottle in a week. If you are making a beverage with a higher alcohol level, the yeast won't have consumed all of the sugar, but the fermentation will have slowed enough that you should move the beverage from the plastic primary fermenter to the glass secondary container.
This brings us to our next step. Frequently it's the only method you need to use. It's also easy. Racking is the careful transfer of a beverage from one container to another so that only the clear liquid moves. The sediment, along with a small amount of clear liquid, remains in the first container. Normally, this transfer is done by siphoning the beverage from one container to another. How often should you rack? It's a trade-off, really.
A beverage can be racked anytime a thick gunk accumulates at the bottom of the container, but each time you rack, you lose some of the clear beverage.
Also, the less active the fermentation — in other words, the less carbon dioxide the yeast is giving off — the more likely that the beverage will be exposed to air and oxidize during racking. Generally, if a beverage finishes fermenting in less than 2 weeks, you don't need to rack — you can just siphon it right into bottles once fermentation is complete. Note: When you rack from one container into another, it's important to replace the oxygen above the beverage with carbon dioxide.
If the liquid isn't fermenting vigorously — for example, if most of the sugar has been converted to alcohol — you can add a couple of tablespoons of sugar to the liquid. This normally gives the yeast a blast of food it can process easily, and the resulting carbon dioxide will drive the oxygen from the secondary fermentation container. When you are making a beverage from loose fruit, such as a grape wine, use a colander to remove it before racking.
See the recipe for Red Grape Wine page How to Rack or Bottle Using a Siphon Siphoning is the most common way to move a beverage from the primary fermenter to a secondary fermenter or to a bottle. You can buy a special siphon hose that includes a pumplike apparatus to get the flow of liquid going, but it's simple enough to use a plain hose with a racking cane.
Siphoning liquid from a primary fermenter into a secondary fermenter at a lower height works by gravity; the weight of the fluid in the lower part of the hose below the higher container creates suction. Beginners tend to want to suck the liquid into the hose to get the siphon started. Not only will that often get you a mouthful of partially- fermented booze and yeast sludge, it's not half as simple as this better technique of filling the racking cane and hose with water before siphoning: 1.
Put the primary container you are racking from on a table and the secondary container you are racking to on the floor. Fill the hose and racking cane with water and hold both ends at the same height so the water doesn't spill out. Put your thumb tightly over the end of the hose that will go into the lower container. Put the open end of the racking cane in the upper container. Your thumb on the other end will keep most of the liquid in the hose. Put the thumbed end of the hose into the lower container, remove your thumb, and let the liquid start flowing. This technique works the same whether you use just a hose or include a racking cane and bottle filler while bottling.
Push the lower end of the bottle filler into a drinking glass to open the valve which starts the siphon and let the water flow out. When the beverage begins to flow out, lift the cane which pauses the siphon , and then start filling bottles. See the illustration on page If you're making a still beverage, you'll need to stabilize the beverage by suspending the yeast activity.
The following are the most common ways to stabilize a beverage. Patience Though letting nature take its course is not my recommended method of stabilization, here's how to go about it. Watch the airlock. If there are no bubbles for 10 minutes, remove the lock and push a stopper into the carboy. If the stopper remains in place after a week or two, move the carboy to a warmer place and wait another week to make sure that the yeast doesn't come back to life.
If the stopper is still in place, maybe the beverage has finished fermenting. Be aware that once sealed in a bottle, yeast can still resurrect itself, like a serial killer in a slasher movie, and wreak havoc in the darkness of your cellar — or worse, on a shelf in your kitchen. For example, say you made a batch of wine in a cool place, and, perhaps because the alcohol level was fairly high, the yeast couldn't consume all of the sugar at the cool temperature and went dormant. Years later, you give a bottle to a friend, who leaves it in the car in a hot parking lot.
It's quite possible that the yeast could come back to life in the warmth, consume the residual sugar, and push the cork out of the bottle, spraying its contents all over the inside of your friend's car. Don't ask how I know this. Potassium Metabisulfite The surest, easiest, and most common way to stop fermentation and clear a beverage is to neutralize the yeast with a chemical like potassium metabisulfite.
Home winemaking suppliers sell this in the convenient form of Campden tablets. Add one crushed tablet per gallon at the end of fermentation. In addition to shutting the yeast down, the chemical also helps inhibit bacteria growth and prevents the beverage from oxidizing. Both of these problems can change a beverage's flavor and color.
Note: The U. However, the amount of sodium in sodium sulfite is too small to be significant. If you have access to potassium metabisulfite, use that; if all you have is the sodium version, don't worry. Potassium Sorbate Sorbates are used to inhibit the reproduction of mold and yeast in a beverage. Add potassium sorbate after all fermentation has finished, at a rate of 1 teaspoon per gallon, dissolved in 1 cup of cool water.
Note that it will not stop an active fermentation, so add it after the sulfite. It can also add a waxy aroma to some beverages. For tify Like the rest of us, yeast enter a state of dormancy when the level of alcohol in their environment gets too high. And rather than making you sit at Workshop for a week while the fermentation process takes place, Scott will bring in a batch that has already been fermenting under his watchful eye for the previous week. You will walk out with four ounce bottles of ginger beer from the first batch to ferment at home.
As an added bonus, you will also leave with a little baggy of natural psychoactive herbs for use in making your own batch of "gruited" beer. For more information on canceling a class, please read our cancellation policy. Learn about this beautiful, ancient Japanese embroidery technique which was originally developed to strengthen quilts and kimonos, and lengthen the life of textiles. Sashiko, which translates to "little stabs", traditionally uses white cotton thread on dark blue indigo dyed fabric. A single running stitch is used to create lovely geometric patterns that can be used to decorate fabric or reinforce ripped denim.
You will learn how to properly execute this running stitch, and transfer geometric designs onto indigo dyed linen.