Piacenza Liver — Divination via the Etruscan gods. Mel Copeland.
Through the three different views I was able to correct the common transliteration seen on most sites on the Piacenza Liver. There are parts of the liver that are still hard to read, and a better photo of the bronze would be helpful in this regard. There are three areas of the liver that are noted within the text of the liver, which one should be able to discern by looking at it.
On the left is an area called "The Net. In some scripts where an "F" might be able to go with the word before or after it, if it went together with the word preceding it the scribe would face the "F" in that direction, countering the actual direction the other letters. Also, they used a colon or a dot to separate words and phrases.
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These punctuation marks, in fact, became quite important — as they were intended — in reading the Etruscan texts. When in doubt I looked at the punctuation marks.
This was particularly important in translating the Tavola Cortonensis and other Etruscan texts. Robigo [Rub]-in.
NE and NA are used in abundance in the Etruscan scripts. Panels PL and PL are hard to read. Single habet; It. Single ha; Fr.
LFS Le appears to be L. II Fut.
It's a dead end. The word is used frequently, read as "I reign" L. Lar, Laris, m. It was the period of the civil war between Octavian Augustus and Mark Antony. The latter's brother, Lucius, had barricaded himself inside the city.
At that time, Perugia was a bastion difficult to overcome, since it rose on a hill and the walls connecting the seven gates protected it. Moreover, Dio Cassius' s chronicles report that Lucius's army was numerically strong and that the city had many provisions. Augustus decided to personally head all the military operations after the numerous defeats suffered by his generals. Eventually, the city gave in and the Emperor did not hesitate to invade, burn and loot it.
Only the temples of Vulcan and Juno were saved by his revenge. To make up for his actions, Augustus conceded the survivors the possibility to rebuild the city and to refound it with the name of "Augusta Perusia" and this explains the presence of the inscription on the Etruscan Arch and above the Porta Marzia. Nevertheless, this entrance has best preserved its characteristics in comparison to the other ancient gates of Perugia.
A Renaissance lodge can be seen above it. On the two sandstone blocks at its sides, the remains of two heads are visible.